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  • WSP Your Injury

Your Injury

At Wetherby Sports Physio, we can successfully treat a range of injuries. Some of the most common injuries we treat are outlined below. Get in touch with us for more information on how we can help you with your injury.

Neck Pain

Cervical Sprain/Strain

Cervical sprains and strains are common injuries of the neck, resulting in pain, stiffness, muscle spasm or weakness. A cervical sprain is an injury to the ligaments in the neck. Cervical strains are injuries to the muscles in the neck. Both injuries are caused by stretching or tearing of soft tissue.

A common cause of cervical sprains and strains is whiplash, which typically occurs during motor vehicle accidents. In this type of injury, the head moves back and forth in a very sudden movement (acceleration-deceleration), injuring ligaments or muscles of the neck by stretching them beyond their normal limits. Cervical sprains and strains can also occur from a fall, contact sports, improper lifting, poor posture while sitting at a desk, using a computer, working on a project, driving, or similar activities.

Cervical Disc Herniation

Cervical disc herniation occurs when a cervical disc (located in the neck) presses on a nerve, causing pain to radiate down the arm and also occasionally causing tingling, numbness or weakness. The extent of the symptoms depends on how much compression of the nerve occurs and the location of the pain depends on the disc that is herniated.

Cervical disc herniation can occur due to an injury or trauma to the neck, but it can also arise without any specific incident or injury.

Nerve Impingement (Radiculopathy)

Cervical radiculopathy is a condition in which injury that occurs near the root of a nerve located between the cervical vertebrae (in the neck) causes pain, weakness or numbness in other locations along the nerve pathway, such as the arm, shoulder, hand, wrist or fingers.Symptoms result from pressure that is exerted on the root of the nerve due to the nerve being compressed by the surrounding cervical discs.

Any situation which exerts pressure on, compresses, or pinches a nerve located between the cervical vertebrae can cause the symptoms associated with cervical radiculopathy.This includes conditions such as spinal stenosis, degenerative disc disease, or a herniated cervical disc, and can also be the result of a trauma or injury to the neck.

Muscle Spasm

A muscle spasm is an involuntary contraction of a muscle or feeling of muscle tightness that usually occurs suddenly, is often painful, and typically does not last long. Muscle spasms are similar to muscle cramps. Muscle spasms have many causes, but if they are caused by an injury that is not treated, they may turn into muscle knots, or myofascial trigger points, which are painful and long lasting.

Degenerative Disc Disease

Degenerative disc disease relates to changes that occur in the discs throughout the spine as a person naturally ages. The spinal discs, which function as shock absorbers for the spine, separate the vertebrae, and allow the spine to remain flexible, break down over time and can cause painful conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis or osteoarthritis. Degeneration of spinal discs can occur anywhere throughout the spine, but most often occur in the cervical region (neck) or lumbar region (lower back).

Degenerative disc disease naturally occurs over time as the spinal discs age. The condition is not actually a disease at all and although all people will incur some degree of disc degeneration over time, being diagnosed with the condition does not mean that your condition will continue to get worse as you age. A loss of fluid within the discs can occur, which makes the discs thinner, resulting in decreased flexibility and vertebrae that sit closer together. The discs can also incur small tears in the exterior layer which may eventually lead to bulging or ruptured discs. The changes to the discs result from a natural aging process, although they are more likely to occur in individuals who engage in repetitive physical work such as heavy lifting, those who are obese, and smokers. An injury to the spine may also lead to a faster degeneration of the discs than would otherwise occur.

Arthritis (Osteoarthritis / Rheumatoid Arthritis)

There are many type of arthritis, a condition that primarily causes inflammation, pain and limited mobility in the joints. Symptoms of arthritis are caused by a breakdown of cartilage surrounding the joint, which normally acts like a shock absorber and prevents bones from rubbing together. Some types of arthritis are a result of regular or excessive wear and tear on the joints and cartilage surrounding the joints, while others are a result of metabolic or immune system abnormalities, infections or injury. Each type of arthritis has slightly different symptoms, causes and treatments.

Causes of arthritis are based on the type of arthritis an individual suffers from. Osteoarthritis, for example, is a result of wear and tear on the cartilage around joints or can arise after sustaining an injury. Gout, another form of arthritis, is a metabolic condition. Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by an overactive immune system. Other types of arthritis may be caused by infections, injury or other medical or physical conditions.

Back Pain

There are many causes of back pain, and unfortunately most adults will experience back pain at some point in their lives. The type of pain experienced, as well as the duration and severity of the pain, will differ depending on the cause, as well as the individual. Although there is no complete cure for most causes of back pain, there are definite ways to reduce pain, improve mobility and flexibility, and avoid the ill-effects caused by prolonged pain and disability.

We offer a number of treatment options to improve or eliminate the effects caused by back pain, no matter what the cause. In addition to non-surgical medical treatments performed by the team at Wetherby Sports Physio and Wetherby Sports Fitness, we offer supervised exercise and strengthening programmes. This has been proven to be one of the best ways to control back pain and diminish the effects of any disability caused by the pain. Our expert physiotherapy staff works one-on-one with patients, providing the greatest chance for a successful outcome.

Surgery should always be a last resort option for the treatment of back pain. It carries with it numerous risks, a long recovery time, and even the chance that surgery is not successful. Self-management of back pain, on the other hand, is a safe and proven long-term approach to controlling the effects of back pain.

Wetherby Sports Physio's approach to treating back pain begins with a thorough medical evaluation. We address the cause of the pain, how long it has been going on, what makes it better or worse, and how the pain affects the patient’s daily activities. We also take into account each individual patient’s goals, limitations and concerns before devising a customized treatment plan. We offer a variety of cutting-edge non-surgical treatment options to relieve and manage pain. We also devise comprehensive plans that allow patients to self-manage their pain, under our initial guidance. This provides immediate relief, as well as a long-term approach to living a life as free from back pain as possible.

Some causes of back pain that can be treated at Wetherby Sports Physio include:

If you have tried any type of treatment for back pain, including chiropractic care, and have seen no improvement after two weeks, it is time to find another approach that will work. At Wetherby Sports Physio we are dedicated to helping our patients diminish or eliminate pain, while avoiding surgery. Through a combination of cutting-edge treatments, as well as a focus on strengthening the body through a structured physiotherapy program, we can provide you with the tools you need to effectively manage back pain so you can get on with living your life, but pain free.

Shoulder Pain

Frozen Shoulder

Adhesive capsulitis, or frozen shoulder, is a condition in which the shoulder cannot be moved normally due to pain and inflammation in the joint capsule of the shoulder. Limited range of motion not only occurs when the individual tries to move the shoulder, but even if shoulder movement is forced. The condition may arise due to no known cause other than lack of use of the shoulder joint.

Frozen shoulder is caused by inflammation, scarring or thickening that occurs within the capsule of the shoulder joint. The capsule of ligaments in the shoulder joint allows the bones in the shoulder to freely move within the joint and if this becomes inflamed, the bones in the shoulder may have difficulty moving or may not be able to move at all. In many cases, there is no known cause for the inflammation and the condition arises from lack of use of the shoulder joint, but some causes that can lead to the condition include diabetes, shoulder trauma or injury, shoulder surgery, tendonitis, bursitis, cervical disc disease, chronic inflammatory arthritis, hyperthyroidism or any type of surgery located in the chest or breast.

Bicep Tendonitis/Bursitis

The terms shoulder tendonitis and shoulder bursitis are often used to indicate that there is inflammation within the shoulder joint, either to the tendons of the rotator cuff or the bursa, the fluid filled sac surrounding the tendons. As the tendons and bursa become inflamed, they thicken and it becomes more difficult to move the shoulder joint without pain and stiffness. The cause and symptoms of these conditions are the same as those of shoulder impingement, since they are caused by an impingement of some kind within the shoulder joint.

Shoulder tendonitis or bursitis is often caused by repetitive overhead activities, such as those found in some sports (swimming, tennis, cricket) or occupations (painting, construction). The condition, however, can be caused by anything that causes impingement in the shoulder joint, such as a bone spur or direct injury to the shoulder. Other conditions such as arthritis, gout, infection or diabetes may also cause inflammation. The conditions are more likely to occur as a person ages, since the tendons become less flexible and more prone to inflammation.

Rotator Cuff Pathology

The rotator cuff consists of four muscles that connect the bones in the shoulder, namely the humerus (upper arm) and the scapula (shoulder blade). Injury can occur to any one of the four muscles or to multiple muscles simultaneously, and can be the result of an acute injury that occurs suddenly or a chronic condition that repeatedly aggravates the area and causes pain and diminished mobility. When the rotator cuff is injured, it can result in anything from occasional pain and inflammation to a complete tear of the muscle, impeding movement of the arm. Depending on the cause and severity of the injury, treatment may vary widely.

Since the rotator cuff is the main set of muscles that control movement of the arm, there are numerous situations that can cause injury to the area. Rotator cuff injuries can occur suddenly, and in this case the injury is considered acute. These are usually the result of a severe force resulting from a fall, lifting a heavy object, or moving the shoulder or arm suddenly in such as a way as to cause a trauma to the muscles. Rotator cuff injuries can also be more chronic in nature, resulting from repetitive or excessive movements that weaken the muscle structure over time, or can be the result of a degeneration of the muscles that can occur as a person ages.Injury to the rotator cuff can also be caused by tendonitis.Rotator cuff injuries are seen more often in men above the age of 40 (although tendonitis is more often seen in women), but can occur in anyone at any age, and injuries to the rotator cuff are more commonly seen in those with professions or hobbies that require repetitive shoulder movements.

Shoulder Impingement

Shoulder impingement occurs when pressure is placed on the rotator cuff from part of the shoulder blade when the arm is lifted. The tendons of the rotator cuff become compressed between the shoulder blade and the humerus (upper arm bone), causing inflammation (leading to tendonitis or bursitis) that can lead to pain, stiffness, tenderness, limited mobility and even a torn rotator cuff. Shoulder impingement is the leading cause of shoulder pain.

Shoulder impingement is caused by a portion of the shoulder blade pressing on the rotator cuff when the arm is lifted. The rotator cuff is a set of tendons that connect four main muscles in the shoulder, allowing an individual to rotate and lift the shoulder. Compression is typically caused by either a bone spur that rubs or pinches the tendons or an inflammation of the bursa, the lubricating sac that surrounds the rotator cuff. Impingement of the rotator cuff is most likely to occur in individuals that spend a lot of time with their arms stretched overhead or that do repetitive heavy lifting, including athletes, such as swimmers and cricket players, as well as those in certain professions, such as construction or painting.

Shoulder Instability

Chronic shoulder instability occurs when loose ligaments within the shoulder joint make it more likely that the humerus (upper arm bone) will repeatedly dislocate or slip out of place from the shoulder socket.This can be due to an initial dislocation of the shoulder that causes ligaments, tendons, or muscles within the shoulder joint to become stretched or torn, or can be the result of repetitive strain on the joint.
In many cases, a severe dislocation of the shoulder can result in chronic shoulder instability. This is due to the fact that when the initial dislocation occurs, it can tear or stretch the ligaments in the front of the shoulder. When this occurs, the shoulder can feel unstable or can occasionally slip out of place partially or fully. Shoulder instability can also occur without an initial trauma occurring to the shoulder joint. Repetitive overuse involving overhead activities, such as those seen in some sports (swimming, tennis, baseball) or occupations (painting, construction) can lead to a loosening of the ligaments in the shoulder, making the shoulder feel unstable. A condition known as multidirectional instability, in which a person naturally has loose ligaments throughout their body, can also cause the shoulder to be unstable or can result in dislocations of the joint occurring in any direction.

Shoulder Sprain / Strain

A shoulder sprain or strain involves an injury to the soft tissues of the shoulder. Sprains involve injury to ligaments (the bands of tissue that connect bones together) and strains refer to injuries of muscles and tendons. Shoulder sprains occur in one of the joints that connect the four bones of the shoulder – the clavicle, sternum, scapula and acromion. Severe sprains can cause shoulder separation.Shoulder strains can be relatively minor or can result in a complete tear of muscle.

Most shoulder sprains occur when the arm is unnaturally forced to twist, the arm twists suddenly or abruptly, an individual falls on an outstretched arm, or there is a severe direct blow or trauma to the arm, shoulder, or upper chest. Shoulder sprains are common in individuals that engage in contact sports. Shoulder strains can result from poor posture, keeping the arms elevated or in an awkward position for a prolonged period, a quick or sudden movement, and even stress.

Shoulder Tendonitis / Bursitis

The terms shoulder tendonitis and shoulder bursitis are often used to indicate that there is inflammation within the shoulder joint, either to the tendons of the rotator cuff or the bursa, the fluid filled sac surrounding the tendons. As the tendons and bursa become inflamed, they thicken and it becomes more difficult to move the shoulder joint without pain and stiffness. The cause and symptoms of these conditions are the same as those of shoulder impingement, since they are caused by an impingement of some kind within the shoulder joint.

Shoulder tendonitis or bursitis is often caused by repetitive overhead activities, such as those found in some sports (swimming, tennis, baseball) or occupations (painting, construction). The condition, however, can be caused by anything that causes impingement in the shoulder joint, such as a bone spur or direct injury to the shoulder. Other conditions such as arthritis, gout, infection or diabetes may also cause inflammation. The conditions are more likely to occur as a person ages, since the tendons become less flexible and more prone to inflammation.

Elbow Pain

Tennis Elbow

Tennis elbow, also known as lateral epicondylitis, is pain or inflammation on the outside of the arm near the elbow, where the muscles and tendons in the forearm attach to the elbow’s bony area. In some cases, a partial tear of a tendon, which attaches the muscles to the bone of the elbow, may occur. Pain can be felt in the elbow, forearm, wrist, or back of hand.

Tennis elbow is often caused by the overuse or repetitive use of the muscles in the forearm, wrist and throughout the arm. Despite its name, the condition is not solely caused by playing tennis, although it is a common injury among those that play tennis due to the overuse of the muscles that can cause the condition during the sport. The injury can occur from a sudden and abrupt injury to the tendons and muscles in the forearm, or more typically can occur over time due to repeated overuse of the muscles in the forearm and wrist. The condition is more common in men than women and often affects people that are involved in repetitive use activities for work or leisure.

Golfers Elbow

Golfer’s elbow, also known as medial epicondylitis, is pain or inflammation on the inside of the arm near the elbow, where the muscles and tendons in the forearm attach to the elbow’s interior bony area. In some cases, a partial tear of the tendon, which attaches the muscles to the bone of the elbow, may occur. Pain can be felt in the elbow, forearm, wrist, or fingers.

Golfer’s elbow is often caused by the overuse or repetitive use of the muscles in the wrist or fingers. Despite its name, the condition is not solely caused by playing golf, although it is a common injury among those that play golf due to the overuse of the muscles that can cause the condition during the sport. The injury can occur from a sudden and abrupt injury to the tendons and muscles in the forearm or a sudden and severe force to the wrist or elbow, or more typically can occur over time due to repeated overuse of the muscles in the wrist and fingers. The condition is more common in men than women and often affects people that are involved in repetitive use activities for work or leisure that may stress the wrists or fingers.

Ulnar Neuropathy

Ulnar neuropathy is a condition in which the ulnar nerve, a major nerve that runs from the neck along the outside edge of the arm into the hand, becomes inflamed due to compression of the nerve. The inflammation causes tingling, numbness, weakness and pain primarily along the elbow, underside of the forearm, wrist or outside edge of the hand, extending towards the pinky and ring fingers. This condition is sometimes referred to as “handlebar palsy” or “bicycler’s neuropathy” since it is a common injury found in cyclists due to repetitive gripping of a bicycle’s handlebars.

Ulnar neuropathy is caused by inflammation due to compression of the ulnar nerve. This can occur from repetitive wrist or elbow movements, motions that continuously stretch the ulnar nerve (such as gripping a bicycle’s handlebars or leaning arms on a desk while using a computer) or from trauma to the nerve anywhere along the path of the nerve (although trauma most commonly occurs in the elbow or wrist). This is a common injury among cyclists due to the repetitive bumps and bounces that can irritate the ulnar nerve while riding. Certain medical conditions can also cause ulnar nerve inflammation or damage, such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and infections. Ulnar neuropathy is more likely to occur in men than women and is more likely in older adults since it typically has a gradual onset of symptoms.

Elbow Sprain

An elbow sprain or strain involves an injury to the soft tissues of the elbow. Sprains involve injury to one or more of the three ligaments (the bands of tissue that connect bones together) within the joint, the radial or ulnar collateral ligaments or the annular ligament of radius. Strains refer to injuries of muscles and tendons surrounding the joint, the lateral or medial epicondyle. Sprains of the elbow are less common than strains. Common elbow strains include conditions such as tennis elbow and golfer’s elbow.

Most elbow sprains occur when there is a traumatic impact to the elbow that causes it to twist sharply or bend sideways or backward in an unnatural motion. This can occur during a fall or during contact sports or other types of collisions (such as motor vehicle accidents). Elbow strains usually occur from acute or chronic (repetitive) overuse or overstretching of the muscles or tendons in the elbow, arm or wrist.

Olecranon Bursitis

Olecranon bursitis is a condition in which the bursa, the fluid filled sac located at the tip of the elbow between the bones of the elbow and the skin, becomes inflamed. The function of the bursa is to allow the skin to move freely over the bones in the elbow but when this area is inflamed, pain develops and it may be difficult to move the elbow freely.

Anything that results in a build-up of fluid or swelling of the elbow can cause olecranon bursitis. This includes a direct injury to the tip of the elbow, an infection around the elbow in which bacteria may enter the bursa causing it to swell, a growth that narrows the space where the bursa is situated (such as a bone spur), repetitive pressure on the tip of the elbow (i.e., leaning your elbow on a hard table for long periods of time), or certain medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout.

Hand and Wrist Pain

Carpel Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition in which compression of the median nerve in the wrist causes pain, tingling, numbness or weakness in the palm side of the hand and fingers. More severe cases of the condition can lead to permanent muscle damage.

Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by a compression of the median nerve, which travels from the wrist into the hand in a narrow space called the carpal tunnel, surrounded by ligaments and bone. Anything that causes swelling in this area can cause compression of the nerve. This occurs most often in those who perform certain repetitive activities for work or leisure that involve the wrist and hand, including assembly line work, typing, writing, painting, sewing, using hand tools, playing musical instruments, or playing certain racket sports. There are also a number of medical conditions that make individuals more likely to suffer from the condition, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, high blood pressure, and other metabolic disorders. Bone fractures within the wrist or hand also make it more likely that carpal tunnel syndrome will develop.Women are three times more likely than men to develop the condition.

De Quervain's Tenosynovitis

De Quervain’s tenosynovitis is a condition in which the tendons on the inside of the wrist near the base of the thumb are inflamed (the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor pollicis longus), causing pain with certain wrist and thumb movements.

De Quervain’s tenosynovitis is primarily caused by repetitive overuse of the wrist or thumb, causing the sheath around the tendons in that area to become inflamed. The motion of pinching the thumb while moving the wrist from side to side is especially likely to cause inflammation leading to the condition. De Quervain’s tenosynovitis can also be caused by a trauma to the wrist that causes inflammation or scar tissue to develop. Certain medical conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, can also lead to the condition.

Wrist/Hand Sprain

A wrist/hand sprain or strain involves an injury to the soft tissues of the wrist, hand or fingers. Sprains involve injury to ligaments (the bands of tissue that connect bones together) within the joint and commonly occur in the wrist or fingers. Strains refer to injuries of muscles and tendons and are less likely to occur than sprains in this region.

Most wrist or hand sprains occur from an accident or traumatic impact, such as a fall or direct and forceful contact, causing the hand or wrist to twist sharply or bend in an unnatural motion. Wrist and finger sprains are common injuries due to the fact that when an individual slips or falls, the natural reaction is to put a hand out to stop the fall and when this occurs, the force of the impact can bend the wrist or finger in such a way that the ligaments stretch or tear. Strains can also occur from a sudden impact such as a fall, but are also likely to occur due to repetitive overuse, such as in the case of sports or occupations that require constant gripping of objects or a repeated hand or wrist motion.

Hip Pain

Tendonitis

Tendonitis is an inflammation or irritation of a tendon, a cord-like structure that connects muscles to bones. There are hundreds of tendons located throughout the body. Tendonitis can occur in any part of the body in which tendons are located, but most often occurs in certain locations such as the elbow, shoulder (rotator cuff), wrist, knee, hip and ankle (Achilles tendon). Tendonitis typically causes pain due to inflammation and swelling.In some cases, a loss of mobility of the joint will occur due to excessive inflammation.

Tendonitis is often caused by repetitive overuse of a joint that causes irritation and inflammation of the tendons. The condition can also be caused by a direct trauma to the joint, can occur in conjunction with other conditions and injuries, or can be caused by some medical conditions (such as rheumatoid arthritis and gout).

Trochanteric Bursitis

Trochanteric bursitis, also known as hip bursitis, is an inflammation of the bursa, the fluid filled sac that is situated between the greater trochanter (the bone located in the outside of the hip) and a tendon that passes over the bone within the hip joint. When the bursa becomes inflamed, it causes pain in the hip in the area over the upper thigh.

Trochanteric bursitis can be caused by an injury to the outside of the hip or upper thigh, such as a fall, bump, or other direct trauma. It can also be caused by overuse from activities such as running, climbing, or standing, and is commonly seen in athletes engaged in running-related sports. Medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout, and certain physical conditions, such as scoliosis, poor posture and spine problems can also contribute to trochanteric bursitis. The condition can develop following hip surgery or in the presence of bone spurs or calcifications in the tendons located within the hip joint.

Arthritis (Osteoarthritis / Rheumatoid Arthritis)

There are many types of arthritis, a condition that primarily causes inflammation, pain and limited mobility in the joints. Symptoms of arthritis are caused by a breakdown of cartilage surrounding the joint, which normally acts like a shock absorber and prevents bones from rubbing together. Some types of arthritis are a result of regular or excessive wear and tear on the joints and cartilage surrounding the joints, while others are a result of metabolic or immune system abnormalities, infections or injury. Each type of arthritis has slightly different symptoms, causes and treatments.

Causes of arthritis are based on the type of arthritis an individual suffers from. Osteoarthritis, for example, is a result of wear and tear on the cartilage around joints or can arise after sustaining an injury. Gout, another form of arthritis, is a metabolic condition. Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by an overactive immune system. Other types of arthritis may be caused by infections, injury or other medical or physical conditions.

Hip Sprain/Strain

A hip sprain or strain involves an injury to the soft tissues of the hip area. Sprains involve injury to ligaments (the bands of tissue that connect bones together) within the joint and strains refer to injuries of muscles and tendons. The bones of the hip anchor muscles that travel down the leg, across the abdomen and into the buttocks and when sprains and strains occur in the hip area, they can lead to symptoms in other locations as well.

Most hip sprains or strains occur from an accident or traumatic impact to the hip, such as a fall or direct and forceful contact (a contusion), or overuse or overstretching of the muscles or ligaments in the hip. The result can be small tears in the muscle fibers, tendons or ligaments, which may be mild, moderate or severe in nature (grades I, II, and III). Sprains and strains are more likely to occur in individuals that have had previous injuries in the area, that do “too much, too soon”, that engage in the same physical activities on a regular basis (repetitive overuse), or that do not warm up sufficiently prior to activity.

Knee Pain

ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) and PCL (posterior cruciate ligament) Injury

ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) and PCL (posterior cruciate ligament) tears are common knee injuries, especially for athletes.

The ACL and PCL are two of four ligaments that stabilize the knee joint, allowing the knee to move forward and backward without moving side to side.The ACL is located in the center of the knee just in front of the PCL, keeping the shin bone (tibia) from moving too far forward, while the PCL keeps it from moving too far backward.The ligaments cross over each other, and along with the MCL and LCL, work to stabilize the knee joint.Injuries to these ligaments are more often sprains than tears, although partial or full tears can occur to either ligament.

MCL / LCL injury

The medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) are two of four ligaments in the knee that provide stability to the knee joint, along with the ACL and PCL. The medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) are two of four ligaments in the knee that provide stability to the knee joint, along with the ACL and PCL.

The MCL is located on the inner side of the knee and the LCL is located on the outer side and these two ligaments work to control the side to side stability of the knee joint.When the MCL or LCL is injured, it can result in a sprain, partial tear or full tear, depending on the severity.

Meniscus / Cartilage damage

A meniscus tear occurs when there is a partial or full tear in one of the two menisci that are located within the knee joint. A meniscus is a C-shaped disc composed of cartilage in the knee that balances body weight across the knee so that it is evenly distributed among the bones in your legs. A meniscus tear occurs when there is a partial or full tear in one of the two menisci that are located within the knee joint.

A meniscus is a C-shaped disc composed of cartilage in the knee that balances body weight across the knee so that it is evenly distributed among the bones in your legs. One meniscus is located along the inner edge of the knee (medial meniscus) and the other is located along the outer edge (lateral meniscus). Meniscus tears are a very common knee injury.

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome – Runners Knee

Patellofemoral pain syndrome, also called “runner’s knee”, is one of the more common sports related injuries affecting the knee, and refers to a condition that causes pain behind and around the knee cap. The patella, or knee cap, fits into grooves in the femur (the thigh bone) and is also attached to the tibia (shin bone) and the quadriceps muscles in the thigh. As the patella moves within the grooves of the femur (it can move in many directions), irritation may develop, causing pain.

The exact cause of patellofemoral pain syndrome is unknown but the condition appears more often in athletes that engage in high impact sports, such as running, jumping, bicycling and walking. Body alignment issues, such as those caused by differences in muscle strength, balance, or unequal physical development may contribute to the condition. Other causes may include overpronation of the feet, wearing improper or worn out footwear while exercising, or undeveloped muscle strength in the thighs.

Patella Tendonitis – Jumpers Knee

Patellar tendonitis, also called “jumper’s knee”, is an inflammation of the patellar tendon, a cord-like structure that connects the patella (knee cap) to the tibia (shin bone). Tendonitis causes pain due to inflammation, swelling, and minor tears in the tendon.
Patellar tendonitis, also called “jumper’s knee”, is an inflammation of the patellar tendon, a cord-like structure that connects the patella (knee cap) to the tibia (shin bone). Tendonitis causes pain due to inflammation, swelling, and minor tears in the tendon. In some cases, a loss of mobility of the joint will occur due to excessive inflammation.

Patellar tendonitis is often caused by repetitive overuse of the knee that causes irritation and inflammation of the patellar tendon and is most common in athletes that engage in sports involving a great deal of jumping or changing direction rapidly, such as in basketball, volleyball, or soccer. Repeated jumping or an increase in intensity, duration or frequency of activity can stress the tendon.The condition, however, is not solely an overuse injury and can also be seen in individuals that have a muscular imbalance in their legs, a raised knee cap, tight leg muscles, or a difference in the alignment of bones in the leg, all of which can place stress on the patellar tendon. Patellar tendonitis can also be caused by a direct trauma to the joint, can occur in conjunction with other conditions and injuries, or can be caused by some medical conditions (such as rheumatoid arthritis and gout).

Chondromalacia Patella

Chondromalacia patella refers to the degeneration of cartilage under the patella (knee cap) which results in pain in the front of the knee. The degeneration causes the cartilage to soften and is the most common cause of chronic knee pain.

Chondromalacia patella is typically caused by overuse of the knee joint, too much force being placed on the knee over time, or arthritis. The condition can also be caused by a previous injury to the knee cap, such as a fracture or dislocation, or can occur in individuals that have a misaligned knee cap. Muscle weakness of the quadriceps, hamstrings, or hip abductor muscles can add to the pain caused by this condition, as can problems with the feet, such as overpronation, flat feet, or wearing worn out shoes.

Arthritis (Osteoarthritis / Rheumatoid Arthritis)

There are many type of arthritis, a condition that primarily causes inflammation, pain and limited mobility in the joints. Symptoms of arthritis are caused by a breakdown of cartilage surrounding the joint, which normally acts like a shock absorber and prevents bones from rubbing together.

There are many type of arthritis, a condition that primarily causes inflammation, pain and limited mobility in the joints. Symptoms of arthritis are caused by a breakdown of cartilage surrounding the joint, which normally acts like a shock absorber and prevents bones from rubbing together. Some types of arthritis are a result of regular or excessive wear and tear on the joints and cartilage surrounding the joints, while others are a result of metabolic or immune system abnormalities, infections or injury. Each type of arthritis has slightly different symptoms, causes and treatments.

Foot and Ankle Pain

Ankle Sprain/Strain

An ankle sprain or strain involves an injury to the soft tissues of the ankle. Sprains involve injury to ligaments (the bands of tissue that connect bones together) within the joint and strains refer to injuries of muscles and tendons.

Most ankle sprains and strains occur from an injury that causes the ankle to twist in an unnatural motion, stretches the tendons or ligaments, or applies a greater than normal force on the ankle joint. This can occur during participation in sports, while walking on an uneven surface or stepping or landing in a hole, or even with unexpected everyday activities in which the foot lands awkwardly. Most sprains occur when the ankle is turned inward or inverted, with the resulting injury occurring to the outside of the ankle. Ankle strains can also be the result of an overuse injury.

Achilles Tendonitis

Achilles tendonitis is an inflammation, irritation, or degeneration of tissue of the Achilles tendon, causing pain in the heel or in the lower leg above the heel. The Achilles tendon connects the muscles in the back of the leg (lower calf) to the foot (at the heel) and is the largest tendon in the body. The injury can be acute or chronic and is most commonly seen in runners and athletes. Individuals with Achilles tendonitis may have a difficult time walking.

The primary cause of Achilles tendonitis is overusing the tendon, typically occurring when there is a sudden increase in the frequency or intensity of an exercise. Other causes that can contribute to Achilles tendonitis are related to situations that stress the Achilles tendon, such as overpronation of the feet, weak or tight calf muscles, wearing high heels often but then exercising in flat shoes, changes in training surfaces or inclines, or not allowing the body sufficient rest between exercising. Improper conditioning or activities that repeatedly stress the tendon (such as jumping or quick stops and starts) can also contribute to the condition.

Tendonitis

Tendonitis is an inflammation or irritation of a tendon, a cord-like structure that connects muscles to bones. There are hundreds of tendons located throughout the body. Tendonitis can occur in any part of the body in which tendons are located, but most often occurs in certain locations such as the elbow, shoulder (rotator cuff), wrist, knee, hip and ankle (Achilles tendon). Tendonitis typically causes pain due to inflammation and swelling. In some cases, a loss of mobility of the joint will occur due to excessive inflammation.

Tendonitis is often caused by repetitive overuse of a joint that causes irritation and inflammation of the tendons. The condition can also be caused by a direct trauma to the joint, can occur in conjunction with other conditions and injuries, or can be caused by some medical conditions (such as rheumatoid arthritis and gout).

Shin Splints (Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome)

Shin splints are an injury causing pain along the lower front of the leg (along the front and inside edge of the shin). The pain is caused by stress on the shinbone (tibia) and the connective tissues that attach the muscles in the lower leg to the shinbone. Shin splints are also known as medial tibial stress syndrome.

Shin splints are a result of an overload of stress on the shinbone and the connective tissues that attach the surrounding muscles to the bone. Running is the most common cause of shin splints. The condition can result from excessive training, increasing the frequency, duration or intensity of an activity too much or too fast, running on slanted, downhill, or hard surfaces for prolonged periods, engaging in activities requiring frequent stops and starts, or wearing footwear that does not provide enough cushioning or support (usually because it is worn out). Overpronation or oversupination of the feet can make it more likely that individuals will suffer from shin splints.

Ankle Instability

Chronic ankle instability is a condition in which the ankle repeatedly “gives way” while engaged in physical activities, walking, standing, or when weight or pressure is placed on the ankle. Instability typically affects the lateral side (outside) of the ankle, resulting in a turning in, or inversion, of the ankle. Ankle instability can result in constant or recurrent pain, tenderness, swelling, and a feeling that the ankle may give out at any time.

Repeated ankle sprains or sprains that have not healed properly can result in chronic ankle instability. Each time the ankle is sprained, the ligaments are stretched or torn, and if the area is not effectively strengthened following an injury, the ligaments may remain weak and can result in repeated sprains or instability of the ankle joint. Connective tissue disorders may also lead to chronic ankle instability.

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a condition in which compression of the posterior tibial nerve, located within the tarsal tunnel on the inside of the ankle, causes pain, tingling, numbness or weakness in the ankle and foot. More severe cases of the condition can result in permanent nerve damage. The causes and effects of tarsal tunnel syndrome on the ankle and foot are similar to those of carpal tunnel syndrome on the wrist and hand.

Tarsal tunnel syndrome is caused by a compression of the posterior tibial nerve, which travels from the back of the leg, through the inside of the ankle, and into the foot within a narrow space called the tarsal tunnel. The tarsal tunnel is covered by a thick ligament that protects the nerves, arteries, veins and tendons that run through the space. Anything that causes swelling in this area can cause compression of the nerve. This includes ankle sprains, or other injuries that may cause swelling in the area, systemic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout or diabetes, or any structure that is enlarged in the area of the tarsal tunnel that may cause nerve compression, such as a bone spur, scar tissue, ganglion cyst, enlarged muscle or varicose vein. In some cases, individuals with flat feet will suffer from compression of nerves in the tarsal tunnel. The condition can also arise due to overuse, such as excessive walking, running, exercising, or standing.

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is a condition causing pain, irritation, inflammation and swelling along the plantar fascia ligament in the bottom of the foot and the heel. Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common causes of foot pain.

Plantar fasciitis is caused by an inflammation or tightness of the plantar fascia, a thick ligament located along the bottom of the foot. Some factors that can increase the likelihood of suffering from the condition include having a tight Achilles tendon, being flatfooted or having very high arches, and being overweight or gaining weight suddenly. Those who engage in excessive running or walking may be more likely to develop the condition.

Arthritis (Osteoarthritis / Rheumatoid Arthritis)

There are many type of arthritis, a condition that primarily causes inflammation, pain and limited mobility in the joints. Symptoms of arthritis are caused by a breakdown of cartilage surrounding the joint, which normally acts like a shock absorber and prevents bones from rubbing together. Some types of arthritis are a result of regular or excessive wear and tear on the joints and cartilage surrounding the joints, while others are a result of metabolic or immune system abnormalities, infections or injury. Each type of arthritis has slightly different symptoms, causes and treatments.

Causes of arthritis are based on the type of arthritis an individual suffers from. Osteoarthritis, for example, is a result of wear and tear on the cartilage around joints or can arise after sustaining an injury. Gout, another form of arthritis, is a metabolic condition. Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by an overactive immune system. Other types of arthritis may be caused by infections, injury or other medical or physical conditions.

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